What is a battery? How does it work?

The appliance which stores electric energy as chemical energy and releases electric energy when required is called a battery.

The battery’s duty is to give the motor the electric power required for it to start, to send a current to the receivers when the motor is not running and to balance the voltage and amperage in the electric system when the motor is running in order to protect the receivers from getting damaged from the possible increase in the voltage produced by the alternator at high a revolution. In this case the battery takes on some of the current produced by the alternator in order to prevent the voltage from getting too high. The 12 volt battery used in fuel engines consists of serially connected 6 2 volt cells. Generally each cell contains 5 positive and 6 negative plates which are also serially connected. These plates are produced by the active ingredient to be spread on the lead – antimony alloy grids which are then baked. The active ingredient in the positive plates is lead dioxide. Negative plates contain pure lead as the active ingredient. In order to prevent a short circuit, separators are placed between the plates. These separators are made from materials which do not prevent the chemical reaction. Electrolytes which are a mixture of sulphuric acid and purified water are placed inside the battery. The elements are connected serially by lead bridges.

How to jump – start a battery?

  • Make sure both batteries are the same amp.
  • Turn off the engine and anything else that may use up electricity.
  • First place the red end of the cable to the (+) terminal of the empty battery and then the other end to the terminal on the full battery.
  • Then place the black end of the cable on the (-) terminal of the full battery and the other end of the cable on any metal surface on the bonnet of the car with the dead battery.
  • Make sure the cables don’t touch any hot surfaces or moving parts such as the exhaust or the fan.
  • First start the car with the full battery, then the car with the empty battery.
  • Once both cars are running you can remove the cables, starting from the empty battery.
  • What are the different battery types? What is a fully closed battery or a dry battery?

Batteries are divided into different types based on the metals used, such as lead – acid, nickel – cadmium or nickel – iron.
Today the most popular battery type is lead – acid.

These batteries are also divided into two; dry cell or wet cell.

The most commonly used wet cell batteries are the Starter or the SLI (starting – lighting – ignition) type classic car batteries. Car batteries are also divided into two, sealed batteries and batteries with removable caps. Inside structure of both of these type batteries are the same. They are both classic type lead – acid batteries. The only difference with the sealed batteries are that the caps are not removable. As it is not possible to add water to these batteries, it is recommended to use these only in vehicles with well regulated voltage.

Apart from this, stationary and traction batteries are also wet cell batteries, although their inside structures and areas of usage are different.

Dry cell or VRLA (vale regulates lead acid) batteries have different internal structures and technologies. These batteries are divided into two based on their internal structures, AGM (Absorbent glass matt) and gel VRLA. The basic difference with these type batteries is that there is no acid overflow or leak. The gas release is minimum. This is why they are very safe and their shelf life is much longer. They are also more resistant to vibrations compared to wet cell batteries. Their transfer and shipment is free of problems. Their areas of usage are stationary facilities, UPS’s, boats and power plants.

What is a UPS?

UPS stands for uninterrupted power supply. A UPS battery is the battery used in these power supplies. The battery in a UPS becomes active when the power is cut and remains as the power source until it comes back on again. These batteries are the dry cell VRLA type batteries and have a minimum gas output.

What are the reasons of my new battery to decharge?

The possible reasons for your new MUTLU battery to decharge are:

  • Unsuitable storage conditions such as high temperatures and moisture etc
  • Current leakage in the car (currents higher than the calculated short circuits), open lights
  • Short circuits in other electrical equipment and hardware
  • Car and battery mismatch, smaller battery selection than required, additional accessories in the car (sound, light or cooling equipment or computer systems)
  • Insufficient charging of the alternator
  • Do batteries freeze?

Yes batteries may freeze.

The freezing temperature of a fully charged battery is between -50 and -70 degrees so under normal circumstances a battery should not freeze. However, decharged batteries may freeze at temperatures around 0 or -10 depending on their decharge levels. Battery’s charge levels should be checked especially at cold weather.

Are batteries dangerous for the environment? How much of it can be recycled?

Batteries are made of lead, sulphuric acid solution and polyprolene box. This is why once the batteries can no longer be used, they become dangerous waste, risky for the environment. However, with an effective recycling system the battery’s polyproloene box and the lead parts can be fully recycled. Although it is also possible to recycle sulphuric acid, it is mostly neutralised.

In our country an effective recycling system is available so please hand in your old battery when you purchase a new one (see battery waste management).

How should the batteries be charged?

See service instructions

How would weather conditions effect batteries?

The effects of weather conditions on a battery are:

1. In terms of storage:

  • Must be stored indoors. When stored outdoors, dust and rain increases the changes of self discharge.
  • Must be stored in a cool and dry place. The discharge rate of a battery is in direct proportion with temperatures. Generally each 10 degree rise in the temperature doubles the loss. That’s why storage in temperatures between 10 – 16 is much healthier than 25 – 30 degrees.
    2. Whilst in use on a vehicle:
  • In warm temperatures the starting power of a battery increases but the corrosion also increases in parallel to this. This is why batteries used in warmer climates have a shorter life.
  • In cold temperatures the starting power of the battery decreases. In addition to this the car’s motor’s starting power need also increases. At cold weather the starting power of a battery becomes very important. At very low temperatures the liquid in the battery (electrolytes) may freeze. While a fully charged battery would freeze at -70 degrees, a discharged battery may freeze at -5 degrees, depending on its discharge levels. This is why it is crucial that the battery is fully charged at cold weather conditions.